Electric Vehicles

Clouser Engineering

P.O Box 986

El Dorado, CA 95623

Phone: 805-570-1606

Fax: 425-790-2842

E-mail: clouserengineering@gmail.com




Multiple concurrent electric bus programs for APS Systems...

Two 40 passenger HYBRID projects shown below:


One Aluminum-Framed / Composite-Shelled bus with 40 kW Propane APU

One Stainless Steel-Framed / Composite-Shelled bus with 40 kW CNG APU

Inside the factory

Outside next to the Paint Booth…

2 26” composite shuttles

1 school bus conversion

Another inside the factory…

2 26” shuttles

1 “Wide One” van conversion

1 20 passenger conversion

Below is the 40 kW Propane APU.

This unit was manufactured by Alturdyne.

It was a Mazda Rotary (13-B) engine converted to propane and packaged in the chassis shown.

This bus was for the CALStart program (read on left).

Here are some pictures of the 26’ transit shuttle and the sub-frame.


APS Systems’ philosophy was “keep it simple”.  Instead of dealing with the challenges of  opportunity charging, mid-day battery swaps, or other schemes which complicated the technology, we simply made the bus as light as possible by using composites while installing as much battery power as we could fit.


The result was a shuttle bus capable of 35-40 MPH that could often work a 12-14 hour day without needing a charge.


Dozens of these busses were in service.  Many went to Santa Barbara MTD, Burbank, Santa Monica, Hawaii, The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and others.

Bay Area Service Begins for Nation's Most Advanced Electric Transit Bus

Business Wire ,  Feb 12, 1998

EMERYVILLE, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Feb. 12, 1998

A revolutionary and environmentally friendly transit bus -- one of the most advanced in the nation -- begins testing Thursday as a part of Northern California's Alameda/Contra Costa (AC) transit fleet.

Utilizing a combination of battery and propane power, the hybrid-electric bus demonstrates the newest heavy-duty technologies for greatly improving fuel economy, lowering emissions and reducing noise.

A project of CALSTART, the advanced-transportation organization, the new bus is an important step in the push for cleaner air, higher efficiency and high-tech jobs. In addition to fewer emissions, the new bus incorporates a series of other features that transit users will appreciate, including a flat floor for easy ingress, and quieter, smoother operation.

"The recently signed global-warming accords at Kyoto really bring home the need and potential for this type of technology," said Michael J. Gage, president and chief executive officer of CALSTART. "Increasingly efficient, clean transportation solutions such as this bus -- ready for deployment today -- clearly show the technical realities this growing industry can deliver."

Produced by CALSTART participating company APS Systems of Oxnard, Calif., the bus utilizes a new-generation hybrid-electric driveline that greatly reduces pollution, vibration and noise. Two electric motors, producing the equivalent of approximately 180 horsepower, drive the buses' wheels under all conditions.

An advanced, nickel-cadmium battery pack provides power for the electric motors and can be charged on demand by a propane-fueled, rotary-engine generator.

The hybrid combination allows the bus to operate in three separate modes, each guaranteeing maximum energy efficiency and minimal environmental impact. When operating on batteries alone, the bus produces zero emissions and can travel up to 45 miles.

If traction requirements can be met by the battery but accessories are needed (air conditioning, lights, wipers, etc.), the generator operates in a low-power mode. A high-power mode is also available, which further charges the batteries and is capable of extending the vehicle's duty cycle to a total of 230 miles, depending on terrain.

Running full-time, the generator consumes only 2.8 gallons of propane per hour. A proof-of-concept prototype, the vehicle could become the first of a new generation of city buses.

The new bus will be in service for six months over many of AC Transit's routes to allow passengers, drivers, mechanics and others to evaluate its performance and advantages. Afterward, it will pass to the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) for an additional six-month trial.

With several private and public partners, CALSTART initiated this novel project to design, build and demonstrate a full-sized hybrid- electric transit bus. Alturdyne produced the vehicle's auxiliary power unit and worked closely with APS Systems.

Funding for the project came from AC Transit, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Energy Commission, the OCTA, Southern California Edison (SCE) and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

CALSTART is a nonprofit advanced-transportation technologies organization working with more than 200 industry and public partners worldwide.

It develops technology-demonstration programs, provides industry analysis and information, and helps fleets more quickly introduce electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles and natural-gas vehicles, as well as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For more information on CALSTART and advanced transportation, visit the consortium's Web site at www.calstart.org.

Various Electric Shuttle Busses…


Shown below is a 20 passenger Toyota shuttle bus which was converted to Electric and the “Wide One” Shuttle Van.


The 20 passenger conversion (as well as a 16 passenger version) was for the new Hong Kong International Airport.


The “Wide One” is a Dodge van that was literally cut down the middle and widened 18” to better serve handicapped patrons.

Additional Projects...

Opportunity charger for Hong Kong International Airport.


Had to mount above-ground for easy installation.


Simple sheet-metal construction.


Animated CAD models helped sell the concept.


Zinc/Air Battery…


Developed new concept and patent application for a cylindrical Zinc/Air battery.


APS loaned a bus to Lawrence Livermore Labs to demo a “Flat” style Zinc/Air battery.  It leaked, so this new concept was developed.

Flat Design:

Cylindrical Design:

System Schematic:


suspension design

chassis design

powertrain design

ground vehicle dynamics




drive implementation

electrical/mechanical system architecture

battery packaging